Essays on liberal democracy

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Show More. Civil society provides opportunities for people to participate in collective activities that are neither pro-state or anti-state but simply non-state. In Latin America; we see social problems such as poverty, inequality, drugs, crime and limited education. This leads to less pol. Cynicism : lost of hope in the system,discouraging political part. Politicans tortured because of being against drugs cartel.

So, strong goverment is needed. Participation in Political Violence if issues ignored, the outcome can be political violence by citizens trying to change goverment policy or by one social group against other, or by the state against its own people. The events of 11 september, brought violence and political terror into focus.

Clausewitz says that war is part of politics. Often violence is rational,calculated.


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Most political violence is tactical. Ex: car bomb in Lebanon against American and French military base. More than 80 soldiers died. Indian presedent was killed by a suicide bomber. We see many of them in Iraq, Palestine. At first it was thought to be irrational fanaticism, but they were actually politically motivated.

Suicide missions are adopted as a last resort, drawing on a cultural tradition of martyrdom and an underlying sense of hopelessness, within the community as the indivudial. Read More.

11 Aspects of a Liberal Democracy

Words: - Pages: 3. Essay The Role Of Political Institutions On The Economic Sector questions the extent to which political institutions effect the apparent difference between governmental influence in the economic sector.

Assessing How Far Democracy in South Africa is Liberal or Illiberal

Words: - Pages: 8. Words: - Pages: 7. Essay The Idea Of Self Government a bond that extends beyond basic kinship to unite people of different genetic backgrounds. Words: - Pages: 4. Words: - Pages: Essay A Vote For The People the health of our democracy directly suffer the most, but voter apathy affects every person governed in the United States.


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  • Political rights enable people to participate in the political process. These rights include voting for alternatives in legitimate elections; joining political organisations; running for office; and electing representatives who can impact governmental policies. Countries are assessed on a scale from 1 to 7, with 1 being the most free and 7 being the least free ibid. According to the Freedom in the World evaluation, South Africa is designated as a free society and was assigned a 2 in the evaluation of political rights.

    Freedom House describes a rating of 1 for political rights as enjoying a wide range of political rights; having elected officials actually rule; having competitive political parties; competing opposition parties with real power; and minority participation. The score of 2 is likely due to political corruption in South Africa, which is ranked 72nd in the world by Transparency International in their Corruption Perceptions Index.

    Current South African President Jacob Zuma faced corruption charges over an arms deal in , in which his financial advisor was convicted in BBC, The Freedom in the World report also declared the status of South Africa with regard to civil liberties as free with a score of 2. Freedoms of expression and of the press are constitutionally guaranteed but have gradually been encroached upon, as the South African government has exerted influence of companies such as the South African Broadcasting Corporation, which is a noteworthy actor in radio and television broadcasting.

    Freedoms of association and peaceful assembly are secured by the constitution. According to the Department of Social Development in South Africa , there were , nonprofit organisations registered in South Africa, which includes nongovernmental organisations and community based organisations. In the first eight months of , the Initiative observed protests, or Freedom of religion and academic freedom are also constitutionally guaranteed, and the South African government has protected these rights without interference.

    The government of South Africa professes no official religion and does not require religious organisations to register with the government. Schools are not permitted to teach a curriculum of a specific faith, but they are allowed to include general religious education Rosenberg, While the government of South Africa protects the right to private property, land rights in South Africa remains a controversial issue that is rooted in the apartheid era and the Natives Land Act Smith, The South African government aims to redistribute 30 percent of the land by but has only redistributed 8 percent thus far.

    Understanding Liberal Democracy: Essays in Political Philosophy

    Officials are saying that they are abiding by the constitution, which means that they cannot just grab land and that they have redistributed more land since than the period between and Smith, The rights and freedoms prescribed by the South African Constitution have not been achieved to perfection by the South African government in the years since it took effect in The South African Constitution and government protect the basic liberties of speech, assembly, religion, and property as well as employ an independent judiciary that assists in the separation of powers and the rule of law.

    South Africa is confronted with many pressing issues with regard to development and governance as it seeks to consolidate its democracy and address the number of problems facing South African. The problems such as poverty, corruption, inequality, and violence persist in South Africa and pose a threat to liberal democracy Beck, In order to better examine liberalism in South Africa, this section reviews these issues as well as governance and development indicators in order to further assess the landscape in South Africa.

    Poverty and unemployment remain serious issues in South Africa in the post-apartheid era. The poverty pandemic has been exacerbated by an unemployment rate of The fight against poverty is severely affecting children, as more than half of South African children live in poverty Laing, Alongside the prevalence of poverty in South Africa is the level of inequality. The GINI index ranges from 0 as perfect equality to as perfect inequality.

    Although the government has implemented free and fair elections and has written one of the most progressive constitutions in the world, it has failed in solving the persistent problem of inequality. Instances of political corruption have been cited often in South Africa. As written previously in this essay, South Africa ranks 72nd out of counties in the world by the Corruption Perceptions Index Transparency International, The Index scores range from 0 for highly corrupt to for very clean. South Africa scored a 42 which is closer to having corruption. Freedom House reported that there are several South African agencies assigned to combat corruption, but that enforcement is inadequate.

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    President Zuma, who was charged with corruption three times between and , is currently facing scrutiny over state funds being used for luxury upgrades on a personal residence Mokone, The Anti-Corruption Centre at the University of Stellenbosch reported that a fifth of government spending is estimated to be lost due to corruption and other financial irregularities Fin24, Violence has been prevalent in South Africa since the apartheid era.

    Images such as that of Hector Peterson being carried away after being shot during the Soweto uprising have been published internationally and used as a symbol of the violence during apartheid. In the 21st century, apartheid has been abolished and the government has changed, but violence continues in South Africa.

    In , South African police opened fire, killing 34 miners and injuring almost 80 who were part striking outside the mine Crawford, A government survey in reported that one in four men in South Africa admit to committing rape, and half of those men admit to raping more than once Carter, Political assassinations add to the violence found in South Africa.

    The Worldwide Governance Indicators dataset published by The World Bank Group aggregates data covering voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption. This dataset examines these issues for countries from to by aggregating several individual indicators from surveys, assessments, and databases. The report shows an overall decline from to for the voice and accountability, government effectiveness, and control of corruption indicators for South Africa.

    The indicators for political stability and absence of violence have improved since , while the rule of law indicator has fluctuated slightly but has remained consistent ibid.

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    This report displays an overall negative trend in South Africa that could affect its classification as a liberal democracy in the coming years. In addition, The World Bank n. The life expectancy at birth of South Africans has risen slightly since , increasing from The data for GNI per capita, life expectancy, and primary school enrolment presents glimmers of optimism in combating the negative trend presented by the Worldwide Governance dataset.

    South Africa faces many hurdles as it seeks to consolidate its democracy.


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    The high rates of poverty among the population, particularly the black population, are related to the violence. Individuals in low-income areas are more likely to experience violence in South Africa Lancaster, The nation of South Africa endured decades of racial separation as apartheid policies were embraced by the Nationalist Party. In the short time, since the end of apartheid, the African National Congress has dominated the political scene in South Africa. However, the landscape is beginning to change, as political parties are joining together in alliances in order to have a better chance of representing their followers.

    South Africa has continued to meet the minimalist conditions for democracy of Freedom House and the Polity project. The judiciary at the highest levels has remained independent and continues to challenge the African National Congress. Despite remaining at elevated levels, violence levels have declined, and the rule of law is corrupt in some regions but remains efficient. The South African Constitution protects all the basic liberties of speech, assembly, religion, and property, and the government has supported these rights in practice.

    The liberal democracy in South Africa has and will continue to experience illiberal traits. However, as highlighted by the assessments of Freedom House and the Polity Project, the state of liberalism in a democracy is assessed using a scale or a continuum.